Author + information
- Christiane Haeffele, MD, MPHa,b,∗ (, )
- Avin Aggarwal, MBBSc,
- Glen Lutchman, MDc,
- Gruschen R. Veldtman, MDd,
- Fred M. Wu, MDe,f and
- George K. Lui, MDa,b
- aDepartment of Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California
- bDepartment of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California
- cDivision of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California
- dCincinnati Children’s Hospital Adolescent and Adult Congenital Heart Program, Cincinnati, Ohio
- eDepartment of Cardiology, Boston Children’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts
- fDepartment of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts
- ↵∗Address for correspondence:
Dr. Christiane Haeffele, Stanford University, 870 Quarry Road Extension, Palo Alto, California 94304.
A 24-year-old Fontan procedure patient underwent surveillance liver cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Findings were suggestive of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Currently, HCC is diagnosed based on imaging alone. Given her otherwise reassuring clinical profile, she underwent liver biopsy. Pathology demonstrated focal nodular hyperplasia. This raises concern for overdiagnosis of HCC in Fontan patients without tissue confirmation. (Level of Difficulty: Advanced.)
The authors have reported that they have no relationships relevant to the contents of this paper to disclose.
- Received May 10, 2019.
- Accepted May 29, 2019.
- 2019 The Authors